Group 4
Nur ainun – 1401164490
Muhammad chiesa a – 1401164506
Yusuf akbar – 1401164548
Calvin kurnia
Meta septyowati
Niken endang p

Reviewed questions

  1. There are three different levels of decision making in organization, they are Strategic, Operational and Management. Each of those level has different types of decisions and information requirements, which makes them have different specialities in decision making. Decisions are classified as structured, semistructured, and unstructured. Structured decision involve a definite procedure for handling them so that do not have to be treated each time as if they were new. Meanwhile, the semistructured where only part of the problem has a clear cut answer provided by accepted procedures. Unstructured decision maker must provide judgement, evaluation, and insight to solve the problem. There are four stages in decision making: intelligence, design, choice, and implementation. Systems to support decision making do not always produce better manager and employee decisions that improve firm performance because of problems with information quality, management filters, and organizational culture.

  2. • Compare the descriptions of manageria behavior in the classical and behavioral models.

The classical model describes formal managerial functions but does not
address exactly what managers do when they plan, decide things, and control
the work of others. For this, we must turn to the work of contemporary
behavioral scientists who have studied managers in daily action.

• Identify the specific managerial roles that can
be supported by information systems.

Interpersonal Roles : Managers act
as leaders, attempting to motivate, counsel, and support subordinates. Managers
also act as liaisons between various organizational levels; within each of these
levels, they serve as liaisons among the members of the management team.
Managers provide time and favors, which they expect to be returned.
Informational Roles: managers act as the nerve
centers of their organizations, receiving the most concrete, up-to-date information and redistributing it to those who need to be aware of it. Managers are therefore information disseminators and spokespersons for their organizations.

Decisional Roles: Managers make decisions. In their decisional role, they
act as entrepreneurs by initiating new kinds of activities; they handle
disturbances arising in the organization; they allocate resources to staff
members who need them; and they negotiate conflicts and mediate between
conflicting groups.

  1. -Business intelligence (BI)” is a term used by hardware and software vendors and information technology consultants to describe the infrastructure for warehousing, integrating, reporting, and analyzing data that comes from the business environment, including big data. The foundation infrastructure collects, stores, cleans, and makes relevant information available to managers. Think databases, data warehouses, data marts, Hadoop, and analytic platforms, which we described in Chapter 6. “Business analytics (BA)” is also a vendor- defined term that focuses more on tools and techniques for analyzing and understanding data. Think online analytical processing (OLAP), statistics, models, and data mining . So, stripped to its essentials, business intelligence and analytics are about integrating all the information streams produced by a firm into a single, coher- ent enterprise-wide set of data, and then, using modeling, statistical analy- sis tools (like normal distributions, correlation and regression analysis, Chi square analysis, forecasting, and cluster analysis), and data mining tools (pat- tern discovery and machine learning), to make sense out of all these data so managers can make better decisions and better plans, or at least know quickly when their firms are failingm to meet planned targets.

-There are six elements in this business intelligence environment:
Data from the business environment: Businesses must deal with both structured and unstructured data from many different sources, including big data. The data need to be integrated and organized so that they can be analyzed and used by human decision makers. Business intelligence infrastructure: The underlying foundation of business intelligence is a powerful database system that captures all the relevant data to operate the business. The data may be stored in transactional databases or combined and integrated into an enterprise-data warehouse or series of interrelated data marts.
Managerial users and methods: Business intelligence hardware and software are only as intelligent as the human beings who use them. Managers impose order on the analysis of data using a variety of managerial methods that define strategic business goals and specify how progress will be measured. These include business performance management and balanced scorecard approaches focusing on key performance indicators and industry strategic analyses focusing on changes in the general business environment, with special attention to competitors. Without strong senior management oversight, business analytics can produce a great deal of information, reports, and online screens that focus on the wrong matters and divert attention
from the real issues. You need to remember that, so far, only humans can ask intelligent questions.
Delivery platform—MIS, DSS, ESS: The results from business intelligence and analytics are delivered to managers and employees in a variety of ways, depending on what they need to know to perform their jobs. MIS, DSS, and ESS, which we introduced in Chapter 2, deliver information and knowledge to different people and levels in the firm—operational employees, middle managers, and senior executives. In the past, these systems could not share data and operated as independent systems. Today, one suite of hardware and software tools in the form of a business intelligence and analytics package is able to integrate all this information and bring it to managers’ desktop or mobile platforms.
User interface: Business people are no longer tied to their desks and desktops. They often learn quicker from a visual representation of data than from a dry report with columns and rows of information. Today’s business analytics software suites emphasize visual techniques such as dashboards and scorecards. They also are able to deliver reports on BlackBerrys, iPhones, and other mobile handhelds as well as on the firm’s Web portal. BA software is adding capabilities to post information on Twitter, Facebook, or internal social media to support decision making in an online group setting rather than in a face-to-face meeting. Business intelligence and analytics promise to deliver correct, nearly real-time information to decision makers, and the analytic tools help them quickly understand the information and take action.

-There are six analytic functionalities that BI systems deliver to achieve these ends:
Production reports: These are predefined reports based on industry- specific requirements (see Table 12.5).
Parameterized reports: Users enter several parameters as in a pivot table
to filter data and isolate impacts of parameters. For instance, you might want to enter region and time of day to understand how sales of a product vary
by region and time. If you were Starbucks, you might find that customers in the East buy most of their coffee in the morning, whereas in the Northwest customers buy coffee throughout the day. This finding might lead to different marketing and ad campaigns in each region. (See the discussion of pivot tables in Section 12.3.)
Dashboards/scorecards: These are visual tools for presenting performance data defined by users.
Ad hoc query/search/report creation: These allow users to create their own reports based on queries and searches. Drill down: This is the ability to move from a high-level summary to a more
detailed view.
• Forecasts, scenarios, models: These include the ability to perform linear forecasting, what-if scenario analysis, and analyze data using standard statistical tools.

-Two different management strategy for developing Business intelligence hardware and software are only as intelligent as the human beings who use them. Managers impose order on the analysis of data using a variety of managerial methods that define strategic business goals and specify how progress will be measured. These include business performance management and balanced scorecard approaches focusing on key performance indicators and industry strategic analyses focusing on changes in the general business environment, with special attention to competitors. Without strong senior management oversight, business analytics can produce a great deal of information, reports, and online screens that focus on the wrong matters and divert attention

  1. There are 3 levels of constituencies in organization, which are lower supervisory (operational) management, middle management, and senior management (vice president and above). Each of these management groups has different responsibilities and different needs for information and business intelligence, with decisions becoming less structured among higher levels of management. Operational and middle management charged on support for semistructured decisions. Meanwhile for senior management, they are in charged of balanced scorecard and enterprise performance management methods. The results from business intelligence and analytics are delivered to managers and employees in a variety of ways, depending on what they know to perform their jobs. MIS,DSS an ESS which deliver information and knowledge to different people and level in a firms. Management information systems (MIS) producing routine production reports are typically used to support this type of decision making. For making unstructured decisions, middle managers and analysts will use decision-support systems (DSS) with powerful analytics and modeling tools, including spreadsheets and pivot tables. Senior executives making unstructured decisions use dashboards and visual interfaces displaying key performance information affecting the overall profitability, success, and strategy of the firm. The balanced scorecard and business performance management are two methodologies used in designing executive support systems (ESS). The leading methodology for understanding the really important information needed by a firm’s executive.

  2. GDSS lead to more participative and democratic decision making. The process is anonymous, which leads to impartial judgement and evaluation. The focus is primarily on communication between the participants. GDSS enhances group decision making by saving time and increasing efficiency without the need to decrease the number of participants. Some of the factors involved in a successful outcome of a group meeting are: the variety of people attending, the facilitator’s effectiveness, the organization’s environment, the quality of the meeting’s organization, the cooperation of the attendees and the appropriateness of the selected tools.

There are a couple of characteristics of GDSS that add business value to a decision making process. First, by implementing GDSS, more people can attend a meeting without causing the productivity to suffer. Thus, everybody contributes simultaneously and the meeting becomes much more efficient. Second, GDSS guarantees anonymous to the contributors, which helps them express their propositions more freely without worrying of being criticized, underestimated or having their ideas rejected because of personal preferences. Third, a properly designed GDSS can increase the number of ideas generated in a meeting and the quality of the decisions while producing the desired results in fewer meetings in both face-to-face and distributed meeting environment.

Discussion :

The result of our discussion is that we need to remake the acc and start working