Assightment_Rafi Suwaid

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MB-40-INT-3

  1. The different levels in an organization (strategic, management, operational) have different decision-making requirements. Decision can be structured, semistructured, or unstructured, with structured decisions clustering at the operational level of the organization and unstructured decisions at the strategic level.

  2. Information technology provides new tools for managers to carry out both their traditional and newer roles, enabling them to monitor, plan, and forecast with more precision and speed than ever before and to respond more rapidly to the changing business environment.

  3. A business intelligence environment consists of data from the business environment, the BI infrastructure, a BA toolset, managerial users and method, a BI delivery platform (MIS, DSS, or ESS), and the user interface.

  4. Senior executives making unstructured decisions use dashboards and visual interfaces displating key performance information affecting the overall profitability, success, and strategy of the firm.

  5. DSS help people working together in a group arrive at decisions more efficiently.

Nadya Shafirah (1401164232), Kania Alma Tiara (1401164511), Shelia Noveruly Sahita Dewi (1401164229)

Review Questions Chapter 12

  1. What the different types of decision and how does the decision making process work?
  • Distinguish between an unstructured, semi-structured, and structured decision.
    Unstructured decisions occur at higher levels – novel, important and non-routine Semi-structured decisions occur at both lower and higher levels – only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure Structured decisions occur at lower levels – repetitive and routine.

There are four stages in decision making:

  1. Problem discovery – what is the problem?
  2. Solution discovery – what are the possible solutions?
  3. Choosing solutions – what is the best solution?
  4. Solution testing – is the solution working and can we make it work better?

The different levels of decision-making and decision-making constituencies in organizations are:

  1. Senior management dealing with unstructured decisions.
  2. Middle management dealing semi-structured decisions.
  3. Operational management dealing with structured decisions.

Senior management in dealing with unstructured decisions – provide judgment, evaluation, and insight to solve the problem Middle management in dealing with semi-structured decisions – only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure Operational management in dealing with structured decisions – repetitive and routine, and they involve a definite procedure for handling them.

  1. How do information system support the activities of management decision making?
  • Compare the description of managerial behavior in the classical and behavioural models

The classical model describe formal management function but does not address exactly what management do when they plan, decide things, and control the work of others.
Behavioral model is actul behavior of management appears to be less systematic, more informal, les relative, more reactive, and less well organized than the classical model would have us believe.

  • Identify the specific managerial roles that can be supported by information system
    Mintzberg found that these managerial roles fell into three categories:
  1. Information quality
  2. Management filters
  3. Organization inertial and politics
  1. How do business intelligence and business analytics support decision making?

Business intelligence and analytics promise to deliver correct, nearly real-time information to

decision makers, and the analytic tools help them quickly understand the information and take action.

A business intelligence environment consists of data from the business environment, the BI

infrastructure, a BA toolset, managerial users and methods, a BI delivery platform (MIS, DSS, or ESS),

and the user interface. There are six analytic functionalities that BI systems deliver to achieve these

ends: predefined production reports, parameterized reports, dashboards and scorecards, ad hoc queries

and searches, the ability to drill down to detailed views of data, and the ability to model scenarios and

create forecasts.

  • Define and describe business intelligence and business analytics
    Business Intelligence
    Business intelligence (BI) is a technology-driven process for analyzing data and presenting actionable information to help corporate executives, business managers and other end users make more informed business decisions. BI encompasses a wide variety of tools, applications and methodologies that enable organizations to collect data from internal systems and external sources, prepare it for analysis, develop and run queries against the data, and create reports, dashboards and data visualizations to make the analytical results available to corporate decision makers as well as operational workers.

    BI data can include historical information, as well as new data gathered from source systems as it is generated, enabling BI analysis to support both strategic and tactical decision-making processes. Initially, BI tools were primarily used by data analysts and other IT professionals who ran analyses and produced reports with query results for business users. Increasingly, however, business executives and workers are using BI software themselves, thanks partly to the development of self-service BI and data discovery tools.

    Business Analytics

    Business analytics (BA) refers to the skills, technologies, practices for continuous iterative exploration and investigation of past business performance to gain insight and drive business planning. Business analytics focuses on developing new insights and understanding of business performance based on data and statistical methods. In contrast, business intelligence traditionally focuses on using a consistent set of metrics to both measure past performance and guide business planning, which is also based on data and statistical methods.(citation needed)

    Business analytics makes extensive use of statistical analysis, including explanatory and predictive modeling, and fact-based management to drive decision making. It is therefore closely related to management science. Analytics may be used as input for human decisions or may drive fully automated decisions. Business intelligence is querying, reporting, onilne analytical processing (OLAP), and “alerts”.

  • List and describe the elements of a business intelligence environment
    There are six elements in the business intelligence environment:
    Data from the business environment – data (structured and unstructured) fromvarious sources need to be integrated and organized

    Business intelligence infrastructure – a database system is needed to capture allthe relevant business process data

    Business analytics toolset – tools are needed to analyze data and produce reports,track the progress of the business using key indicators of performance

    Managerial users and methods – managers decide on strategic business goals andhow progress are measured to make full use of BI and BA tools

    Delivery platform (MIS, DSS, ESS) – results from BI and BA are delivered toeveryone in the firm

    User interface – visual techniques such as dashboards and scorecards are used topresent BI and BA results

  • List and describe the analytic functionalities provided by BI systems
    The simplest and most ubiquitous (though interestingly often driven the least real value) is reporting. Reporting tells us all about what has already happened. One of the key things about reporting is that it is very static. A key limitation to reports is that, even if they are very parameter driven, they don’t allow users the ability to dig more deeply, aggregate up, etc. thus liming the insights they deliver. Also, by definition, reports are backward looking also limits their value for forward-thinking decisions. Reporting is important (even necessary) but rarely do reports make it obvious what to do next—what to change, what to keep the same, etc. Reports, queries and search tools give us an excellent sense of current or past state and pretty much end there.
    The next function up the complexity and value ladder is Analysis. Because analysis focuses on why things happened, it’s much more valuable for contributing to making good decisions. This is the world of visualization and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). Graphs and infographics can connect data elements and present them in a way that makes their relationships more obvious; statistical processes can be brought to bear on the data to give us a sense of how reliable those conclusions are; and OLAP tools let us explore these relationships by drilling down to more granularity, up to higher levels of aggregation and across to find relationships that weren’t immediately obvious.
    The critical difference between reporting and analysis is that ability to explore the data and relationships in an efficient way as opposed to being limited to a rigid view of the information. OLAP and visualization tools are key to this competency.
    Monitoring takes us another level higher in complexity. Because it tells us exactly what is happening now, it can provide immense value by allowing us to identify issues, intervene and correct in near real time rather than waiting for a report to tell us how badly we did and the ensuingpost mortemanalysis to tell us why the bad results occurred. Dashboards, scorecards and alerts allow us to make decisions to create good results proactively and avoid bad performance before it accumulates.
    There’s actually a term for this particular form of monitoring. “Operational business intelligence,” sometimes called “real-time business intelligence,” is an approach to data analysis that enables decisions based on the real-time[1] data companies generate and use on a day-to-day basis. This use leverages BI tools and algorithms to improve the day-to-day activities of front-line workers. Examples include tools to help control expenses, utilities, monitor renewals, etc.
    The “holy grail” of BI is predictive analytics (by the way, it’s also where the most snake oil is sold). Predictive analytics process the data to come up with predictions of what might happen in the future. While not yet widespread in multi-family housing, there are some predictive analytics already in the common technology stack. For example, credit scoring applications predict likely bad debt and pricing and revenue management systems predict optimal rents to balance occupancy and yield. Predictive analytics value, when executed well, should be obvious—if we know something about the future, we have even more opportunity to affect that future, or at least to prepare for it as part of our decision making process.

Compare two different management strategies for developing BI and BA capabilities

  • One-stop integrated solution
    – Hardware firms sell software that run optimally on their hardware
    – Makes firm dependent on single vendor—switching costs
  • Multiple best-of-breed solution
    – Greater flexibility and independence
    – Potential difficulties in integration
    – Must deal with multiple vendors
  1. How do different decision-making constituencies in an organization use business intelligence? 

    Operational and middle management are generally charged with monitoring the performance of their firm. Most of the decisions they make are fairly structured. Management information systems (MIS) producing routine production reports are typically used to support this type of decision making. 

    For making unstructured decisions, middle managers and analysts will use decision-support systems (DSS) with powerful analytics and modeling tools, including spreadsheets and pivot tables. Senior executives making unstructured decisions use dashboards and visual interfaces displaying key performance information affecting the overall profitability, success, and strategy of the firm. The balanced scorecard and business performance management are two methodologies used in designing executive support systems (ESS).
    a) Unstructured decisions are those in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insight to solve the problem. Each of these decisions is novel, important, and nonroutine, and there is no well-understood or agreed-on procedure for making them.
    Structured decisions, by contrast, are repetitive and routine, and they involve a definite procedure for handling them so that they do not have to be treated each time as if they were new. Many decisions have elements of both types of decisions and are semistructured, where only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure. In general, structured decisions are more prevalent at lower organizational levels, whereas unstruc- tured problems are more common at higher levels of the firm.
    b) MIS systems are typically used by middle mangers to support this type of
    decision making, and their primary output is a wet of routine production reports
    based on data extracted and summarized from the firms underlying transaction
    processing systems. The DSS systems rely more heavily on modeling than MIS,
    using mathematical or analytical models to perform what-if or other kinds of
    analysis. The purpose of ESS is to help senior management focus on the really
    important performance information that affects the overall profitability and
    success of the firm. They need to understand what is the really important
    performance information for a specific firm that executives need and they will
    need to develop systems capable of delivering this information to the right
    people.
    What is the role of information systems in helping people working in a group make decisions more efficiently?
    Group decision-support systems (GDSS) help people working together in a group arrive at decisions more efficiently. GDSS feature special conference room facilities where participants contribute their ideas using networked computers and software tools for organizing ideas, gathering information, making and setting priorities, and documenting meeting sessions.
    c) The balanced scorecard framework is thought to be “balanced” because it causes managers to focus on more than just financial performance. In this view, financial performance is past history—the result of past actions—and managers should focus on the things they are able to influence today, such as business process efficiency, customer satisfaction, and employee training. Once a scorecard is developed by consultants and senior executives, the next step is automating a flow of information to executives and other managers for each of the key performance indicators. There are literally hundreds of consulting and software firms that offer these capabilities, which are described below. Once these systems are implemented, they are often referred to as ESS.
    Another closely related popular management methodology is business performance management (BPM). Originally defined by an industry group in 2004 (led by the same companies that sell enterprise and database systems like Oracle, SAP, and IBM), BPM attempts to systematically translate a firm’s strate- gies (e.g., differentiation, low-cost producer, market share growth, and scope of operation) into operational targets. Once the strategies and targets are identified, a set of KPIs are developed that measure progress towards the targets. The firm’s performance is then measured with information drawn from the firm’s enter- prise database systems. BPM uses the same ideas as balanced scorecard but with a stronger strategy flavor (BPM Working Group, 2004).
    Corporate data for contemporary ESS are supplied by the firm’s existing enterprise applications (enterprise resource planning, supply chain manage- ment, and customer relationship management). ESS also provide access to news services, financial market databases, economic information, and whatever other external data senior executives require. ESS also have significant drill- down capabilities if managers need more detailed views of data.
    Well-designed ESS help senior executives monitor organizational performance, track activities of competitors, recognize changing market conditions, and identify problems and opportunities. Employees lower down in the corporate hierarchy also use these systems to monitor and measure business performance in their areas of responsibility. For these and other business intelligence systems to be truly useful, the information must be “actionable”—it must be readily available and also easy to use when making decisions. If users have difficulty identifying critical metrics within the reports they receive, employee productivity and business performance will suffer. The Interactive Session on Management shows how Colgate-Palmolive addressed this problem and helped its managers make more data-driven, actionable decisions.
  2. Define a group decision-support system (GDSS) and explain how it differs from a DSS. 

    Operational and middle management are generally charged with monitoring the performance of their firm. Most of the decisions they make are fairly structured. Management information systems (MIS) producing routine production reports are typically used to support this type of decision making. 

    a) The DSS we have just described focus primarily on individual decision making. However, so much work is accomplished in groups within firms that a special category of systems called group decision-support systems (GDSS) has been developed to support group and organizational decision making.
    b) A GDSS is an interactive computer-based system for facilitating the solution of unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working together as a group in the same location or in different locations. Collaboration systems and Web-based tools for videoconferencing and electronic meetings described earlier in this text support some group decision processes, but their focus is primarily on communication. GDSS, however, provide tools and technologies geared explicitly toward group decision making.
    GDSS-guided meetings take place in conference rooms with special hardware and software tools to facilitate group decision making. The hardware includes

Syifa Raihana MB-40-INT-3 (1401160198) Wisnu Dega Wahyu MB-40-int-3 (1401160270)

GROUP ASSIGNMENT

  1. What are the different types of decisions and how does the decision-making process work?

• List and describe the different levels of decision making and decision-making constituencies

in organizations. Explain how their decision-making requirements differ.

• Distinguish between an unstructured, semistructured, and structured decision.

• List and describe the stages in decision making

The different levels in an organization (strategic, management, operational) have different decision-making requirements.

Strategic management: As part of a strategic planning process top executives

· develop overall organizational goals, strategies, policies, and

· monitor the strategic performance of the organization and its overall direction in the political, economic, and competitive business environment

Tactical management: Business unit managers and business professionals in self-directed teams

· develop short- and medium-range plans, schedules, budgets and specify policies, procedures, and business objectives for their sub-units of the company, and

· allocate resources and monitor the performance of their organizational sub-units, including departments, divisions, process teams, project teams, and other workgroups.

Operational management: Operating managers and members of self-directed teams

· develop short-range plans (e.g. weekly production schedules), and

· direct the use of resources and the performance of tasks according to procedures and within budgets and schedules they establish for the teams and other workgroups of the organization.

Decisions can be structured, semistructured, or unstructured, with structured decisions clustering at the operational level of the organization and unstructured decisions at the strategic level. Decision making can be performed by individuals or groups and includes employees as well as operational, middle, and senior managers.

· Unstructured decisions are those in which the decision maker must provide judgment,evaluation and insight to solve the problem. Each of these decisions is novel, important and nonroutine and there is no well-understood or agreed on procedure for making them.

· Structured decisions are repetitive and routine, and involve a definite procedure for handling them.

· Semi structured are decisions that have elements of both, and where only part of the problem has a clear cut answer provided by an accepted procedure.

There are four stages in decision making: intelligence, design, choice, and implementation. Systems to support decision making do not always produce better manager and employee decisions that improve firm performance because of problems with information quality, management filters, and organizational culture.

  1. Intelligence

• Discovering, identifying, and understanding the problems occurring in the organization

  1. Design

• Identifying and exploring solutions to the problem

  1. Choice

• Choosing among solution alternatives

  1. Implementation

• Making chosen alternative work and continuing to monitor how well solution is working

  1. How do information systems support the activities of managers and management decision

making?

• Compare the descriptions of managerial behavior in the classical and behavioral models.

• Identify the specific managerial roles that can be supported by information systems.

The classical model suggests that managers perform five classical functions. These functions are planning, organizing, coordinating, deciding, and controlling. Although the classical model describes formal managerial functions, it does not provide a description of what managers actually do. The behavioral models suggest that managerial behavior is less systematic, more informal, less reflective, more reactive, less well-organized, and somewhat frivolous. The behavioral models differ from the classical model in that managers perform a great deal of work at an unrelenting pace, managerial activities are fragmented, managers prefer speculation, managers prefer oral forms of communication, and managers give the highest priority to maintaining a diverse and complex web of contacts.

Contemporary research looking at the actual behavior of managers has found that managers’ real activities are highly fragmented, variegated, and briefin duration and that managers shy away from making grand, sweeping policy decisions. Information technology provides new tools for managers to carry out both their traditional and newer roles, enabling them to monitor, plan, and forecast with more precision and speed than ever before and to respond more rapidly to the changing business environment. Information systems have been most helpful to managers by providing support for their roles in disseminating information, providing liaisons between organizational levels, and allocating resources. However, information systems are less successful at s upporting unstructured decisions. Where information systems are useful, information quality, management filters, and organizational culture can degrade decision making.

Information systems support the liaison, nerve center, disseminator, spokesperson, and resource allocator roles. Currently information systems do not support the figurehead, leader, entrepreneur, disturbance handler, and negotiator roles. Information systems are the strongest at the informational role and the weakest at the interpersonal and decisional roles.

3.How do business intelligence and business analytics support decision making?

• Define and describe business intelligence and business analytics.

• List and describe the elements of a business intelligence environment.

• List and describe the analytic functionalities provided by BI systems.

• Compare two different management strategies for developing BI and BA capabilities.

Business intelligence and analytics promise to deliver correct, nearly real-time information to decision makers, and the analytic tools help them quickly understand the information and take action. A business intelligence environment consists of data from the business environment, the BI infrastructure, a BA toolset, managerial users and methods, a BI delivery platform (MIS, DSS, or ESS), and the user interface. There are six analytic functionalities that BI systems deliver to achieve these ends: predefined production reports, parameterized reports, dashboards and scorecards, ad hoc queries and searches, the ability to drill down to detailed views of data, and the ability to model scenarios and create forecasts.

Business intelligence (BI) is a technology-driven process for analyzing data and presenting actionable information to help corporate executives, business managers and other end users make more informed business decisions. BI encompasses a wide variety of tools, applications and methodologies that enable organizations to collect data from internal systems and external sources, prepare it for analysis, develop and run queries against the data, and create reports, dashboards and data visualizations to make the analytical results available to corporate decision makers as well as operational workers.

The potential benefits of business intelligence programs include accelerating and improving decision making; optimizing internal business processes; increasing operational efficiency; driving new revenues; and gaining competitive advantages over business rivals. BI systems can also help companies identify market trends and spot business problems that need to be addressed.

BI data can include historical information, as well as new data gathered from source systems as it is generated, enabling BI analysis to support both strategic and tactical decision-making processes. Initially, BI tools were primarily used by data analysts and other IT professionals who ran analyses and produced reports with query results for business users. Increasingly, however, business executives and workers are using BI software themselves, thanks partly to the development of self-service BI and data discovery tools.

Business intelligence combines a broad set of data analysis applications, including ad hoc analysis and querying, enterprise reporting, online analytical processing (OLAP), mobile BI, real-time BI, operational BI, cloud and software as a service BI, open source BI, collaborative BI and location intelligence. BI technology also includes data visualization software for designing charts and other infographics, as well as tools for building BI dashboards and performance scorecards that display visualized data on business metrics and key performance indicators in an easy-to-grasp way. BI applications can be bought separately from different vendors or as part of a unified BI platform from a single vendor.

BI programs can also incorporate forms of advanced analytics, such as data mining, predictive analytics, text mining, statistical analysis and big data analytics. In many cases though, advanced analytics projects are conducted and managed by separate teams of data scientists, statisticians, predictive modelers and other skilled analytics professionals, while BI teams oversee more straightforward querying and analysis of business data.

Business intelligence data typically is stored in a data warehouse or smaller data marts that hold subsets of a company’s information. In addition, Hadoop systems are increasingly being used within BI architectures as repositories or landing pads for BI and analytics data, especially for unstructured data, log files, sensor data and other types of big data. Before it’s used in BI applications, raw data from different source systems must be integrated, consolidated and cleansed using data integration and data quality tools to ensure that users are analyzing accurate and consistent information.

In addition to BI managers, business intelligence teams generally include a mix of BI architects, BI developers, business analysts and data management professionals; business users often are also included to represent the business side and make sure its needs are met in the BI development process. To help with that, a growing number of organizations are replacing traditional waterfall development with Agile BI and data warehousing approaches that use Agile software development techniques to break up BI projects into small chunks and deliver new functionality to end users on an incremental and iterative basis. Doing so can enable companies to put BI features into use more quickly and to refine or modify development plans as business needs change or new requirements emerge and take priority over earlier ones.

Sporadic usage of the term business intelligence dates back to at least the 1860s, but consultant Howard Dresner is credited with first proposing it in 1989 as an umbrella category for applying data analysis techniques to support business decision-making processes. What came to be known as BI technologies evolved from earlier, often mainframe-based analytical systems, such as decision support systems and executive information systems. Business intelligence is sometimes used interchangeably with business analytics; in other cases, business analytics is used either more narrowly to refer to advanced data analytics or more broadly to include both BI and advanced analytics.

Business analytics (BA) is the practice of iterative, methodical exploration of an organization’s data, with an emphasis on statistical analysis. Business analytics is used by companies committed to data-driven decision-making.

BA is used to gain insights that inform business decisions and can be used to automate and optimize business processes. Data-driven companies treat their data as a corporate asset and leverage it for a competitive advantage. Successful business analytics depends on data quality, skilled analysts who understand the technologies and the business, and an organizational commitment to data-driven decision-making.

Business analytics examples:

Business analytics techniques break down into two main areas. The first is basic business intelligence. This involves examining historical data to get a sense of how a business department, team or staff member performed over a particular time. This is a mature practice that most enterprises are fairly accomplished at using.

The second area of business analytics involves deeper statistical analysis. This may mean doing predictive analytics by applying statistical algorithms to historical data to make a prediction about future performance of a product, service or website design change. Or, it could mean using other advanced analytics techniques, like cluster analysis, to group customers based on similarities across several data points. This can be helpful in targeted marketing campaigns, for example.

Specific types of business analytics include:

Descriptive analytics, which tracks key performance indicators to understand the present state of a business;

Predictive analytics, which analyzes trend data to assess the likelihood of future outcomes; and

Prescriptive analytics, which uses past performance to generate recommendations about how to handle similar situations in the future.

4.How do different decision-making constituencies in an organization use business intelligence?

• List each of the major decision-making constituencies in an organization and describe the types of decisions each makes.

• Describe how MIS, DSS, or ESS provide decision support for each of these groups.

• Define and describe the balanced scorecard method and business performance management.

–Unstructured: Decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insight to solve problem

–Structured: Repetitive and routine; involve definite procedure for handling so they do not have to be treated each time as new

–Semistructured: Only part of problem has clear-cut answer provided by accepted procedure

There are four kinds of systems for supporting the different levels and types of decisions, Management information system (MIS) provides routine reports and summaries of transaction-level data to middle and operational level managers to provide answers to structured and semi-structured decision problems.

· Decision-support system(DSS) provide analytical models or tools for analyzing large quantities of data for middle managers who face semi-structured decision situations.

· Executive support systems(ESS) are systems that provide senior management, making primarily unstructured decisions, with external information(news, stock analyses, and industry trends) and high-level summaries of firm performance.

· In other word, MIS, DSS, and ESS provide information and knowledge to different people and levels in the firm, operational employees, middle managers, and senior executives

Senior managers:

–Make many unstructured decisions

–For example: Should we enter a new market?

•Middle managers:

–Make more structured decisions but these may include unstructured components

–For example: Why is order fulfillment report showing decline in Minneapolis?

•Operational managers, rank and file employees

–Make more structured decisions

5.What is the role of information systems in helping people working in a group make decisions more efficiently?

• Define a group decision-support system (GDSS) and explain how it differs from a DSS.

• Explain how a GDSS works and how it provides value for a business.

Group decision support system (GDSS) technology supports project collaboration through the enhancement of digital communication with various tools and resources. These types of programs are used to support customized projects requiring group work, input to a group and various types of meeting protocols.

General process steps of group decision support systems are group brainstorming, classification, prioritization, planning, assessment, documentation, and resolution. The process always involves a facilitator who designs the work space and guides the team. GDSS enhance group decision making through this general process and can then be customized to serve clients in ways that are unique to their businesses. For example, in 1989 GroupSystems, the first company to offer GDSS software, developed a product based on the research of Dr. Jay Nunamaker. The developed software was tailored to specific needs of IBM and the U.S. Navy, in both cases giving a tangible structure for collaboration and enhancing group communication, which resolved issues related to peer dynamics and information flow.

Yosua Hendrico 1401162164 Arlinda Meidina Shabila 1401162414

  1. Different types of decision: Strategic, management, operational. Decisions can be structured or semi-structured at the strategic level.
    Four stages in decision making process work: Intelligence, design, choice, and implementation.

  2. Information system support the activities of the managers and management decision making by provides useful information quality, management filters and organitazional culture. And also in managerial activities must have a good expertise of planning, organizing, coordinating, deciding, and controlling.

  3. Business intelligence and analytics promise to deliver correct, nearly real-time information to decision makers, and the analytic tools help them quickly understand the information and take action. There are six analytic functionalities that BI system deliver to achieve these ends:

– Production Reports: Predefined reports based on industry specific requirements
– Parameterized Reports: users enter several parameters as in a pivot table to filter data and isolate impacts of parameters
– Dashboards/scorecards: Visual tools for presenting perfomance data defined by users
– Ad hoc query/search/report creation: Allow users to create their own reports basen on queries and searches
– Managerial users and methods: Business intelligence hardware and software are only as intelligent as the human beings who use them.
– Deliver platform-MIS, DSS, ESS: Deliver information and knowledge to different people and levels in the firm-operational employess, middle managers, and senior excetuvies.
– User Interface: Emphasize visual techniques such as dashboards and scorecards.

  1. There are many different constituencies that make up a modern business firm. Three levels of management:lower supervisory(operational) management, middle management, and senior management (vice president and above, including exccecutive or "c level" management, e.g. chief excecutive officer,chief financial officers, and chief operational officer). Each of these management gropus has different responsibilities and different needs for information and business intelligence, with decisons becoming less structured among higher levels of management.

  2. A GDSS is and interactive computer-bases system for facilitating the solution of unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working together as a group in the same location or in different locations. Collaboration systems and Web-based tools for videoconferencing and electronic meetings discribed earlier in this text support some group decision processes, but their focus is primarily on communication. GDSS, However, provide tools and technologies geared explicitly toward group decision making.

Assignment week 11

Aditya Vhio (1401160168)
Biagi Wijaya (1401160199)
Larasati P P (1401160219)
Idham Ghiffari (1401160299)
Kamal Abdillah A (1401160529)

  1. Describe the different types of business intelligence users at Colgate-Palmolive.
    The different types of business intelligence users at Colgate-Palmolive Colgatehad been a global SAP user since the early 1990s, but it was running five separate ERP system to serve its different geographic regions. Over a period of time, disparities in the data developed between different geographic regions and between the data used at the corporate level and the data used by an individual region or business unit. Other than that, Colgate choses to creating a single global data repository using SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse, SAP’s analytical, reporting and data warehousing solution. Colgate’s regional ERP System feed their data to the warehouse, were the data are standardized and formatted for enterprise-wide reporting and analysis. This eliminates differences in data across the enterprise. Furthermore, Colgate’s Information Systems specialist then implemented SAP NetWeaver BW Accelerator to speed up data loads and improve user perception and adoption, and then they implemented SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence to build customized reports. SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence provides a powerful, intuitive interface that enables business professionals to ask spontaneous questions about their data.
  2. Describe the “People” issues that were affecting Colgate’s ability to use business intelligence.
    The “People” issues that were affecting Colgate’s ability to use business intelligence is like every time a sales report was run, it showed different number for orders and shipments. Colgate wanted more useable data to drive business decisions and all of its managers and business units worldwide to work with the same version of data. In addition, for of the output of the warehouse for senior manager is daily HTML table that showing series of financial and operational metrics for the day compared to the previous month and quarter. However the data were not being used enough employees in their decision making to have an impact on business benefit. Eventually, Colgate’s senior manager and other casual user began requesting deeper access to the warehouse data in a more timely and user-friendly format. They want reports that were easier to run where the data could be interpreted faster. Senior management requested customizable.
  3. What people, organization and technology factors had to be addressed in providing business intelligence capabilities for each type of user?
    Colgate’s Senior Managers and other casual users, on the other hand did not feel comfortable running ad hoc reports or drilling down into the layers of data to answer questions the data brought to light. They did not have much time to spend developing reports and the standard reports produced for them by the warehouse lacked navigation and drill down capabilities. Eventually Colgate’s senior manager and other casual users began requesting deeper access to the warehouse data in a more timely and user-friendly format. They wanted reports that were easier to run where the data could be interpreted faster. Senior management requested customizable, real-time dashboards that could be more easily used to drive performance improvement. Colgate’s information systems specialists then implemented SAP NetWeaver BW Accelerators to speed up data loads and improve user perception and adoption and they implemented SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence to build customized reports.

  4. What kind of decisions does Colgate’s new business intelligence capability support? Give three examples. What is their potential business impact?
    For Colgate, better reporting tools that can support different kinds of users have greatly expanded the use of business intelligence throughout the company. Currently about 4000 users interact with Colgate’s SAP system daily, but this number is expected to expand to 15000 or 20000 users in the future. People who are accustomed to seeing reports stuffed with numbers are finding that they can use the information presented in dashboards to make faster decisions.For example, managers can determine positive or negative financial conditions by simply looking for negative financial conditions by simply looking for where dashboard reports use the colour green, which reflects improvements in Colgate’s financial position.

Dolibarr Progress :
– we already found our company name
– we already found our product
– we already create the structure of our company

mis assignment dolibar step and question review chapter 12 group 3

group 3 :Eko Sanjaya Nurhakim
Narisha Mega Aulia Mahdani
Sandi Muhammad Nur Pasha
Sausan Zhafir Qunayta
Nabila Ratu Utami
Raisa Aminah
Ilham El Fawwaz

Our dolibar progress :
1. We allready make an account,
2. We allready deciding our products,
3. Converting the products to dolibar with price and company name.
4. We allready set the sectors of our company.
5. We allready set up the moduls for each sectors .
6. We allready make a third party which is costumer and supplier.
7. Our customers is allready make an order.

question review chapter 12

  1. Describe the different types of business intelligence users at Colgate-Palmolive.

Power users are the one who use the tools for report development. Senior Manager who wanted reports that were easier to run and where the data could be interpreted faster. Casual User who wanted interactive reports that drill, slice and format information based on their needs.

Colgate choses to creating a single global data repository using SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse, SAP’s analytical, reporting and data warehousing solution. Colgate’s regional ERP System feed their data to the warehouse, where the data are standardized and formatted for enterprise-wide reporting and analysis. This eliminates differences in data across the enterprise.

  1. Describe the “People” issues that were affecting Colgate’s ability to use business intelligence.

The “people” issues are to train their employees regarding the new SAP system. They created customized courses and ran the classroom training that will identify people that could be used as resources for developing the reporting tools.
In addition, for of the output of the warehouse for senior manager is daily HTML table that showing series of financial and operational metrics for the day compared to the previous month and quarter. However the data were not being used enough employees in their decision making to have an impact on business benefit.

  1. What people, organization and technology factors had to be addressed in providing business intelligence capabilities for each type of user?

Centralized data warehousing that can provide usable data and better reporting tools are the factors had to be addressed in providing business intelligence capabilities.

Colgate’s Senior Managers and other casual users, on the other hand did not feel comfortable running ad hoc reports or drilling down into the layers of data to answer questions the data brought to light. They did not have much time to spend developing reports and the standard reports produced for them by the warehouse lacked navigation and drill down capabilities.
Eventually Colgate’s senior manager and other casual users began requesting deeper access to the warehouse data in a more timely and user-friendly format. They wanted reports that were easier to run where the data could be interpreted faster. Senior management requested customizable, real-time dashboards that could be more easily used to drive performance improvement.

Colgate’s information systems specialists then implemented SAP NetWeaver BW Accelerators to speed up data loads and improve user perception and adoption and they implemented SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence to build customized reports.

  1. What kind of decisions does Colgate’s new business intelligence capability support? Give three examples. What is their potential business impact?

For Colgate, better reporting tools that can support different kinds of users have greatly expanded the use of business intelligence throughout the company. Currently about 4000 users interact with Colgate’s SAP system daily, but this number is expected to expand to 15000 or 20000 users in the future. People who are accustomed to seeing reports stuffed with numbers are finding that they can use the information presented in dashboards to make faster decisions.For example, managers can determine positive or negative financial conditions by simply looking for negative financial conditions by simply looking for where dashboard reports use the colour green, which reflects improvements in Colgate’s financial position.

MIS Assignment April 11th 2017 Group 2

Group Member

  1. Sukma Rizki Djalu Riverdhan

  2. Nur Muthrofin T

  3. Lathiefa Riski A

  4. Aditya Pratama

  5. Describe the different types of business intelligence users at Colgate-Palmolive.

Answer : It was running five separate ERP system to serve its different geographic regions. Over a period of time, disparities in the data developed between different geographic regions and between the data used at the corporate level and the data used by an individual region or business unit.

Colgate choses to creating a single global data repository using SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse, SAP’s analytical, reporting and data warehousing solution. Colgate’s regional ERP System feed their data to the warehouse, were the data are standardized and formatted for enterprise-wide reporting and analysis. This eliminates differences in data across the enterprise.

Furthermore, Colgate’s Information Systems specialist implemented SAP NetWeaver BW Accelerator to speed up data loads and improve user perception and adoption, and then they implemented SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence to build customized reports. SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence provides a powerful, intuitive interface that enables business professionals to ask spontaneous questions about their data.

  1. Describe the “People” issues that were affecting Colgate’s ability to use business intelligence.

Answer: With a lot of reports of sales, the information couldnt be retrieve and being used to drive a beneficial decission impact to the employee. by that the senior manager maintains the perform to achieve a more user friendly data that later can be interpreted faster by the company.

  1. What people, organization and technology factors had to be addressed in providing business intelligence capabilities for each type of user?

Answer: Colgate’s information systems specialists implemented SAP NetWeaver BW Accelerators to speed up data loads and improve user perception and adoption and they implemented SAP Business Objects Web Intelligence to build customized reports. All of that in a purpose to enhance the flow of the data where a lot of employee wants to have access to the deeper area of data inside the warehouse.

  1. What kind of decisions does Colgate’s new business intelligence capability support? Give three examples. What is their potential business impact?

Colgate represent their data on the dashboards for everyone to follow the work of the company, sharing data from Board of directors to the employee.

For example, managers can determine positive or negative financial conditions by simply looking for negative financial conditions by simply looking for where dashboard reports use the colour green, which reflects improvements in Colgate’s financial position.

  1. Our product is concentrated in ice cream field with name Laglace. It’s a homemade ice cream. We have already made our profile for the company, and our structure for the company such as human resource, Management contact, Supplier Relation Management,Fnancial Modules, Product Management, Projects, Multi Modules-tools, websites,and interface with external system.

Our company structure consists of Lathiefa as the CEO and we have Aditya as our IT guy who responsible for developing our website and transaction process, and we have Sukma Rizki who work as our marketing chief and last one we have Nur Muthroffin as the person who responsible to take care of our Supplies and Production.

Currently we are targetting our product to kids on the street by placing our Trucks near by some schools around the city.

We have five variant taste of our products for now, those are Vanilla, Strawberry, Mocca, Tiramisu, and Green Tea. For now, we have five trucks deployed in several areas in the city and we are expecting to expand further.

From our calculation, there are around 300 cups sold on each truck every day with the most favorite taste of ice cream is strawberry.

We are looking forward to explore more products from our company to provide more variant product to compete with our competitors on the street.

Assignment group 4 11.04.17 mb40int01

Group 4
Nur ainun – 1401164490
Muhammad chiesa a – 1401164506
Yusuf akbar – 1401164548
Calvin kurnia
Meta septyowati
Niken endang p

Reviewed questions

  1. There are three different levels of decision making in organization, they are Strategic, Operational and Management. Each of those level has different types of decisions and information requirements, which makes them have different specialities in decision making. Decisions are classified as structured, semistructured, and unstructured. Structured decision involve a definite procedure for handling them so that do not have to be treated each time as if they were new. Meanwhile, the semistructured where only part of the problem has a clear cut answer provided by accepted procedures. Unstructured decision maker must provide judgement, evaluation, and insight to solve the problem. There are four stages in decision making: intelligence, design, choice, and implementation. Systems to support decision making do not always produce better manager and employee decisions that improve firm performance because of problems with information quality, management filters, and organizational culture.

  2. • Compare the descriptions of manageria behavior in the classical and behavioral models.

The classical model describes formal managerial functions but does not
address exactly what managers do when they plan, decide things, and control
the work of others. For this, we must turn to the work of contemporary
behavioral scientists who have studied managers in daily action.

• Identify the specific managerial roles that can
be supported by information systems.

Interpersonal Roles : Managers act
as leaders, attempting to motivate, counsel, and support subordinates. Managers
also act as liaisons between various organizational levels; within each of these
levels, they serve as liaisons among the members of the management team.
Managers provide time and favors, which they expect to be returned.
Informational Roles: managers act as the nerve
centers of their organizations, receiving the most concrete, up-to-date information and redistributing it to those who need to be aware of it. Managers are therefore information disseminators and spokespersons for their organizations.

Decisional Roles: Managers make decisions. In their decisional role, they
act as entrepreneurs by initiating new kinds of activities; they handle
disturbances arising in the organization; they allocate resources to staff
members who need them; and they negotiate conflicts and mediate between
conflicting groups.

  1. -Business intelligence (BI)” is a term used by hardware and software vendors and information technology consultants to describe the infrastructure for warehousing, integrating, reporting, and analyzing data that comes from the business environment, including big data. The foundation infrastructure collects, stores, cleans, and makes relevant information available to managers. Think databases, data warehouses, data marts, Hadoop, and analytic platforms, which we described in Chapter 6. “Business analytics (BA)” is also a vendor- defined term that focuses more on tools and techniques for analyzing and understanding data. Think online analytical processing (OLAP), statistics, models, and data mining . So, stripped to its essentials, business intelligence and analytics are about integrating all the information streams produced by a firm into a single, coher- ent enterprise-wide set of data, and then, using modeling, statistical analy- sis tools (like normal distributions, correlation and regression analysis, Chi square analysis, forecasting, and cluster analysis), and data mining tools (pat- tern discovery and machine learning), to make sense out of all these data so managers can make better decisions and better plans, or at least know quickly when their firms are failingm to meet planned targets.

-There are six elements in this business intelligence environment:
Data from the business environment: Businesses must deal with both structured and unstructured data from many different sources, including big data. The data need to be integrated and organized so that they can be analyzed and used by human decision makers. Business intelligence infrastructure: The underlying foundation of business intelligence is a powerful database system that captures all the relevant data to operate the business. The data may be stored in transactional databases or combined and integrated into an enterprise-data warehouse or series of interrelated data marts.
Managerial users and methods: Business intelligence hardware and software are only as intelligent as the human beings who use them. Managers impose order on the analysis of data using a variety of managerial methods that define strategic business goals and specify how progress will be measured. These include business performance management and balanced scorecard approaches focusing on key performance indicators and industry strategic analyses focusing on changes in the general business environment, with special attention to competitors. Without strong senior management oversight, business analytics can produce a great deal of information, reports, and online screens that focus on the wrong matters and divert attention
from the real issues. You need to remember that, so far, only humans can ask intelligent questions.
Delivery platform—MIS, DSS, ESS: The results from business intelligence and analytics are delivered to managers and employees in a variety of ways, depending on what they need to know to perform their jobs. MIS, DSS, and ESS, which we introduced in Chapter 2, deliver information and knowledge to different people and levels in the firm—operational employees, middle managers, and senior executives. In the past, these systems could not share data and operated as independent systems. Today, one suite of hardware and software tools in the form of a business intelligence and analytics package is able to integrate all this information and bring it to managers’ desktop or mobile platforms.
User interface: Business people are no longer tied to their desks and desktops. They often learn quicker from a visual representation of data than from a dry report with columns and rows of information. Today’s business analytics software suites emphasize visual techniques such as dashboards and scorecards. They also are able to deliver reports on BlackBerrys, iPhones, and other mobile handhelds as well as on the firm’s Web portal. BA software is adding capabilities to post information on Twitter, Facebook, or internal social media to support decision making in an online group setting rather than in a face-to-face meeting. Business intelligence and analytics promise to deliver correct, nearly real-time information to decision makers, and the analytic tools help them quickly understand the information and take action.

-There are six analytic functionalities that BI systems deliver to achieve these ends:
Production reports: These are predefined reports based on industry- specific requirements (see Table 12.5).
Parameterized reports: Users enter several parameters as in a pivot table
to filter data and isolate impacts of parameters. For instance, you might want to enter region and time of day to understand how sales of a product vary
by region and time. If you were Starbucks, you might find that customers in the East buy most of their coffee in the morning, whereas in the Northwest customers buy coffee throughout the day. This finding might lead to different marketing and ad campaigns in each region. (See the discussion of pivot tables in Section 12.3.)
Dashboards/scorecards: These are visual tools for presenting performance data defined by users.
Ad hoc query/search/report creation: These allow users to create their own reports based on queries and searches. Drill down: This is the ability to move from a high-level summary to a more
detailed view.
• Forecasts, scenarios, models: These include the ability to perform linear forecasting, what-if scenario analysis, and analyze data using standard statistical tools.

-Two different management strategy for developing Business intelligence hardware and software are only as intelligent as the human beings who use them. Managers impose order on the analysis of data using a variety of managerial methods that define strategic business goals and specify how progress will be measured. These include business performance management and balanced scorecard approaches focusing on key performance indicators and industry strategic analyses focusing on changes in the general business environment, with special attention to competitors. Without strong senior management oversight, business analytics can produce a great deal of information, reports, and online screens that focus on the wrong matters and divert attention

  1. There are 3 levels of constituencies in organization, which are lower supervisory (operational) management, middle management, and senior management (vice president and above). Each of these management groups has different responsibilities and different needs for information and business intelligence, with decisions becoming less structured among higher levels of management. Operational and middle management charged on support for semistructured decisions. Meanwhile for senior management, they are in charged of balanced scorecard and enterprise performance management methods. The results from business intelligence and analytics are delivered to managers and employees in a variety of ways, depending on what they know to perform their jobs. MIS,DSS an ESS which deliver information and knowledge to different people and level in a firms. Management information systems (MIS) producing routine production reports are typically used to support this type of decision making. For making unstructured decisions, middle managers and analysts will use decision-support systems (DSS) with powerful analytics and modeling tools, including spreadsheets and pivot tables. Senior executives making unstructured decisions use dashboards and visual interfaces displaying key performance information affecting the overall profitability, success, and strategy of the firm. The balanced scorecard and business performance management are two methodologies used in designing executive support systems (ESS). The leading methodology for understanding the really important information needed by a firm’s executive.

  2. GDSS lead to more participative and democratic decision making. The process is anonymous, which leads to impartial judgement and evaluation. The focus is primarily on communication between the participants. GDSS enhances group decision making by saving time and increasing efficiency without the need to decrease the number of participants. Some of the factors involved in a successful outcome of a group meeting are: the variety of people attending, the facilitator’s effectiveness, the organization’s environment, the quality of the meeting’s organization, the cooperation of the attendees and the appropriateness of the selected tools.

There are a couple of characteristics of GDSS that add business value to a decision making process. First, by implementing GDSS, more people can attend a meeting without causing the productivity to suffer. Thus, everybody contributes simultaneously and the meeting becomes much more efficient. Second, GDSS guarantees anonymous to the contributors, which helps them express their propositions more freely without worrying of being criticized, underestimated or having their ideas rejected because of personal preferences. Third, a properly designed GDSS can increase the number of ideas generated in a meeting and the quality of the decisions while producing the desired results in fewer meetings in both face-to-face and distributed meeting environment.

Discussion :

The result of our discussion is that we need to remake the acc and start working

Assignment & Discussion result

Group 3
Rendi Haryadi D (1401164185)
Ika Nur A. (1401164200)
Alifia Ratna D. (1401164192)
Alvin (not working)
Noer setiawan (not working)

  1. What are the different types of decisions and how
    does the decision-making process work?

• List and describe the different levels of
decision making and decision-making
constituencies in organizations. Explain how
their decision-making requirements differ.

The different levels in an organization (strategic, management, operational) have different decision-making requirements. Decisions can be structured, semistructured, or unstructured, with structured decisions clustering at the operational level of the organization and unstructured decisions at the strategic level. Decision making can be performed by individuals or groups and includes employees as well as operational, middle, and senior managers. There are four stages in decision making: intelligence, design, choice, and implementation. Systems to support decision making do not always produce better manager and employee decisions that improve firm performance because of problems with information quality, management filters, and organizational culture.

• Distinguish between an unstructured,
semistructured, and structured decision.

Unstructured decisions are those in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insight to solve the problem. Each of these decisions is novel, important, and nonroutine, and there is no well-understood or agreed-on procedure for making them.

Structured decisions, by contrast, are repetitive and routine, and they involve a definite procedure for handling them so that they do not have to be treated each time as if they were new. Many decisions have elements of both types of decisions.

semistructured, where only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure. In general, structured decisions are more prevalent at lower organizational levels, whereas unstruc- tured problems are more common at higher levels of the firm.

• List and describe the stages in decision
making.

Senior management face many unstructured decision situations, such as establishing the firm’s 5- or 10-year goals or deciding new markets to enter.

Middle management faces more structured decision scenarios but their decisions may include unstructured components. A typical middle-level management decision might be “Why is the reported order fulfillment report showing a decline over the past six months at a distribution center in Minneapolis?” This middle manager will obtain a report from the firm’s enterprise system or distribution management system on order activity and operational efficiency at the Minneapolis distribution center. This is the structured part of the decision. But before arriving at an answer, this middle manager will have to interview employees and gather more unstructured infor- mation from external sources about local economic conditions or sales trends.

Operational management and rank-and-file employees tend to make more structured decisions. For example, a supervisor on an assembly line has to decide whether an hourly paid worker is entitled to overtime pay. If the employee worked more than eight hours on a particular day, the supervisor would routinely grant overtime pay for any time beyond eight hours that was clocked on that day.

  1. How do information systems support the activities of managers and management decision
    making?
    • Compare the descriptions of managerial
    behavior in the classical and behavioral models.

The classical model describes formal managerial functions but does not
address exactly what managers do when they plan, decide things, and control
the work of others. For this, we must turn to the work of contemporary
behavioral scientists who have studied managers in daily action.

• Identify the specific managerial roles that can
be supported by information systems.

Interpersonal Roles : Managers act
as leaders, attempting to motivate, counsel, and support subordinates. Managers
also act as liaisons between various organizational levels; within each of these
levels, they serve as liaisons among the members of the management team.
Managers provide time and favors, which they expect to be returned.
Informational Roles: managers act as the nerve
centers of their organizations, receiving the most concrete, up-to-date information and redistributing it to those who need to be aware of it. Managers are therefore information disseminators and spokespersons for their organizations.

Decisional Roles: Managers make decisions. In their decisional role, they
act as entrepreneurs by initiating new kinds of activities; they handle
disturbances arising in the organization; they allocate resources to staff
members who need them; and they negotiate conflicts and mediate between
conflicting groups.

  1. How do business intelligence and business
    analytics support decision making?
    • Define and describe business intelligence and
    business analytics.

“Business intelligence (BI)” is a term used by hardware and software
vendors and information technology consultants to describe the infrastructure
for warehousing, integrating, reporting, and analyzing data that comes from
the business environment, including big data. The foundation infrastructure
collects, stores, cleans, and makes relevant information available to managers.
Think databases, data warehouses, data marts, Hadoop, and analytic platforms,
which we described in Chapter 6. “Business analytics (BA)” is also a vendor-
defined term that focuses more on tools and techniques for analyzing and
understanding data. Think online analytical processing (OLAP), statistics,
models, and data mining.

• List and describe the elements of a business
intelligence environment.

There are six
elements in this business intelligence environment:
– Data from the business environment: Businesses must deal with both
structured and unstructured data from many different sources, including
big data. The data need to be integrated and organized so that they can be
analyzed and used by human decision makers.

  • Business intelligence infrastructure: The underlying foundation of
    business intelligence is a powerful database system that captures all the
    relevant data to operate the business. The data may be stored in transactional
    databases or combined and integrated into an enterprise-data warehouse or
    series of interrelated data marts.

  • Business analytics toolset: A set of software tools are used to analyze data
    and produce reports, respond to questions posed by managers, and track the
    progress of the business using key indicators of performance.

  • Managerial users and methods: Business intelligence hardware and
    software are only as intelligent as the human beings who use them. Managers
    impose order on the analysis of data using a variety of managerial methods
    that define strategic business goals and specify how progress will be
    measured. These include business performance management and balanced
    scorecard approaches focusing on key performance indicators and industry
    strategic analyses focusing on changes in the general business environment,
    with special attention to competitors. Without strong senior management
    oversight, business analytics can produce a great deal of information, reports,
    and online screens that focus on the wrong matters and divert attention
    from the real issues. You need to remember that, so far, only humans can ask
    intelligent questions.

  • Delivery platform—MIS, DSS, ESS: The results from business intelligence
    and analytics are delivered to managers and employees in a variety of ways,
    depending on what they need to know to perform their jobs. MIS, DSS, and
    ESS, which we introduced in Chapter 2, deliver information and knowledge
    to different people and levels in the firm—operational employees, middle
    managers, and senior executives. In the past, these systems could not share
    data and operated as independent systems. Today, one suite of hardware and
    software tools in the form of a business intelligence and analytics package
    is able to integrate all this information and bring it to managers’ desktop or
    mobile platforms.

  • User interface: Business people are no longer tied to their desks and
    desktops. They often learn quicker from a visual representation of data than
    from a dry report with columns and rows of information. Today’s business
    analytics software suites emphasize visual techniques such as dashboards and
    scorecards. They also are able to deliver reports on BlackBerrys, iPhones, and
    other mobile handhelds as well as on the firm’s Web portal. BA software is
    adding capabilities to post information on Twitter, Facebook, or internal social
    media to support decision making in an online group setting rather than in a
    face-to-face meeting.

• List and describe the analytic functionalities
provided by BI systems.

There are six analytic functional-
ities that BI systems deliver to achieve these ends:
– Production reports: These are predefined reports based on industry-
specific requirements.

  • Parameterized reports: Users enter several parameters as in a pivot table
    to filter data and isolate impacts of parameters. For instance, you might want
    to enter region and time of day to understand how sales of a product vary
    by region and time. If you were Starbucks, you might find that customers in
    the East buy most of their coffee in the morning, whereas in the Northwest
    customers buy coffee throughout the day. This finding might lead to different
    marketing and ad campaigns in each region.

  • Dashboards/scorecards: These are visual tools for presenting performance
    data defined by users.

  • Ad hoc query/search/report creation: These allow users to create their
    own reports based on queries and searches.

  • Drill down: This is the ability to move from a high-level summary to a more
    detailed view.

  • Forecasts, scenarios, models: These include the ability to perform linear
    forecasting, what-if scenario analysis, and analyze data using standard
    statistical tools.

• Compare two different management strategies
for developing BI and BA capabilities.

There are two different strategies for adopting BI and BA capabilities for the
organization: one-stop integrated solutions versus multiple best-of-breed
vendor solutions.

The first solution carries the risk that a single vendor provides your firm’s
total hardware and software solution, making your firm dependent on its
pricing power. It also offers the advantage of dealing with a single vendor who
can deliver on a global scale.

The second solution offers greater flexibility and
independence, but with the risk of potential difficulties integrating the software
to the hardware platform, as well as to other software. Vendors always claim
their software is “compatible” with other software, but the reality is that it can
be very difficult to integrate software from different vendors. Microsoft in
particular emphasizes building on its desktop interface and operating system
(Windows), which are familiar to many users, and developing server applica-
tions that run on Microsoft local area networks. But data from hardware and
software produced by different vendors will have to flow seamlessly into
Microsoft workstations to make this strategy work. This may not be adequate
for Fortune 500 firms needing a global networking solution.

  1. How do different decision-making constituencies
    in an organization use business intelligence?

• List each of the major decision-making
constituencies in an organization and describe
the types of decisions each makes.

There are 3 levels of constituencies in organization, which are lower supervisory (operational) management, middle management, and senior management (vice president and above). Each of these management groups has different responsibilities and different needs for information and business intelligence, with decisions becoming less structured among higher levels of management. Operational and middle management charged on support for semistructured decisions. Meanwhile for senior management, they are in charged of balanced scorecard and enterprise performance management methods. The results from business intelligence and analytics are delivered to managers and employees in a variety of ways, depending on what they know to perform their jobs. MIS,DSS an ESS which deliver information and knowledge to different people and level in a firms. Management information systems (MIS) producing routine production reports are typically used to support this type of decision making. For making unstructured decisions, middle managers and analysts will use decision-support systems (DSS) with powerful analytics and modeling tools, including spreadsheets and pivot tables. Senior executives making unstructured decisions use dashboards and visual interfaces displaying key performance information affecting the overall profitability, success, and strategy of the firm. The balanced scorecard and business performance management are two methodologies used in designing executive support systems (ESS). The leading methodology for understanding the really important information needed by a firm’s executive.

• Describe how MIS, DSS, or ESS provide
decision support for each of these groups.

Management information system (MIS)
-Serve middle management
-These system are generally not flexible and have little analytical capability
-Provide answer to routine questions
-Provide reports on firm’s current performance based on data from TPS (data from internal)

Decision support system (DSS)
-Serve middle management
-support non-routine decision making (problems that are unique and rapidly changing)
-use information from TPS and MIS , and also data from external

Executive support system (ESS)
-Support senior management
-Address non-routine decisions requiring judgement or evaluation
-Incorporate data about external events and summarized information from internal MIS and DSS

• Define and describe the balanced scorecard
method and business performance
management.

The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management system which takes into account non-financial aspects of corporate performance, such as customer satisfaction and business processes, to create a complete picture of how the company is likely to perform in the future. For example, reducing the level of customer service may boost current earnings, but the balanced scorecard approach would also take into account potential loss of future earnings due to poor customer satisfaction.

  1. What is the role of information systems in
    helping people working in a group make
    decisions more efficiently?

• Define a group decision-support system
(GDSS) and explain how it differs from a DSS.

Group decision-support systems (GDSS) help people working together in a group arrive at decisions more
efficiently. GDSS feature special conference room facilities where participants contribute their ideas using
networked computers and software tools for organizing ideas, gathering information, making and setting
priorities, and documenting meeting sessions.

• Explain how a GDSS works and how it provides
value for a business.

GDSS lead to more participative and democratic decision making. The process is anonymous, which leads to impartial judgement and evaluation. The focus is primarily on communication between the participants. GDSS enhances group decision making by saving time and increasing efficiency without the need to decrease the number of participants. Some of the factors involved in a successful outcome of a group meeting are: the variety of people attending, the facilitator’s effectiveness, the organization’s environment, the quality of the meeting’s organization, the cooperation of the attendees and the appropriateness of the selected tools.

There are a couple of characteristics of GDSS that add business value to a decision making process. First, by implementing GDSS, more people can attend a meeting without causing the productivity to suffer. Thus, everybody contributes simultaneously and the meeting becomes much more efficient. Second, GDSS guarantees anonymous to the contributors, which helps them express their propositions more freely without worrying of being criticized, underestimated or having their ideas rejected because of personal preferences. Third, a properly designed GDSS can increase the number of ideas generated in a meeting and the quality of the decisions while producing the desired results in fewer meetings in both face-to-face and distributed meeting environment.

Discussion result:
After 15 days expired we must create new account again

MIS Review Questions Answers and progress dolibarr | MB-40-INT-2

group names:1. Muhammad Indra (1401164257)
2. Muhammad Hafizal (1401164274)
3. Budi Arya K (1401164437)
4. Larasati Rizqia R (1401164488)
5. Fauzi Ahmad (1401164633)
6. Mahardika Adiputra S (1401164355)

Answers:
1. There are three different levels of decision making in organization, they are Strategic, Operational and Management. Each of those level has different types of decisions and information requirements, which makes them have different specialities in decision making. Decisions are classified as structured, semistructured, and unstructured. Structured decision involve a definite procedure for handling them so that do not have to be treated each time as if they were new. Meanwhile, the semistructured where only part of the problem has a clear cut answer provided by accepted procedures. Unstructured decision maker must provide judgement, evaluation, and insight to solve the problem. There are four stages in decision making: intelligence, design, choice, and implementation. Systems to support decision making do not always produce better manager and employee decisions that improve firm performance because of problems with information quality, management filters, and organizational culture.

  1. In the classical model of management, early writers described the five classical functions of managers as planning, organizing, coordinating, deciding, and controlling. The classical model describes formal managerial functions but does not address exactly what managers do when they plan, decide things, and control the work of others. Then it shift to behavioral models state that the actual behavior of managers appears to be less systematic, more informal, less reflective, more reactive, and less well organized than the classical model would have us believe. In their information role, managers act as as the nerve centers of their organizations, receiving the most concrete. up-to-date information and redistributing it to those who need to be aware of it. Managers are therefore information disseminators and spokespersons for their organizations.

  2. Business intelligence and analytics promise to deliver correct, nearly real-time information to decision makers, and the analytic tools help them quickly understand the information and take action.

  • Business intelligence is a term used by hardware and software vendors and information technology consultants to describe the infrastructure for warehousing, integrating, reporting, and analyzing data that comes from the business environment, including big data. Business analytics is also a vendor- defined term that focuses more on tools and techniques for analyzing and understanding data.

  • Elements of a business intelligence environment:

  1. Data from the business environment: Businesses must deal with both structured and unstructured data from many different sources, including big data.
  2. Business intelligence infrastructure: The underlying foundation of business intelligence is a powerful database system that captures all the relevant data to operate the business.

  3. Business analytics toolset: A set of software tools are used to analyze data and produce reports, respond to questions posed by managers, and track the progress of the business using key indicators of performance.

  4. Managerial users and methods: Business intelligence hardware and software are only as intelligent as the human beings who use them.Managers impose order on the analysis of data using a variety of managerial methods that define strategic business goals and specify how progress will be measured.

  5. Delivery platform—MIS, DSS, ESS: The results from business intelligence and analytics are delivered to managers and employees in a variety of ways, depending on what they need to know to perform their jobs. MIS, DSS, and ESS deliver information and knowledge to different people and levels in the firm—operational employees, middle managers, and senior executives.

  6. User interface: In today’s business people are no longer tied to their desk. People often learn quicker from a visual representation of data than from a dry report with columns and rows of information. Today’s business analytics software suites emphasize visual techniques such as dashboards and scorecards.

-Analytics functionalities provided by BI systems
1. Production reports: These are predefined reports based on industry- specific requirements.
2. Parameterized reports: Users enter several parameters as in a pivot table to filter data and isolate impacts of parameters.

  1. Dashboards/scorecards: These are visual tools for presenting performance data defined by users.

  2. Ad hoc query/search/report creation: These allow users to create their own reports based on queries and searches.

  3. Drill down: This is the ability to move from a high-level summary to a more detailed view.

  4. Forecasts, scenarios, models: These include the ability to perform linear forecasting, what-if scenario analysis, and analyze data using standard statistical tools.

  • There are two different strategies for adopting BI and BA capabilities for the organization: 1.one-stop integrated solutions versus multiple best-of-breed vendor solutions.The hardware firms want to sell your firm integrated hardware/software solutions that tend to run only on their hardware (the totally integrated solution). It’s called “one-stop shopping.” The software firms (SAP, SAS, and Microsoft) encourage firms to adopt the “best of breed” software and that runs on any machine they want. In this strategy, you adopt the best database and data warehouse solution, and select the best business intelligence and analytics package from whatever vendor you believe is best.
  1. There are 3 levels of constituencies in organization, which are lower supervisory (operational) management, middle management, and senior management (vice president and above). Each of these management groups has different responsibilities and different needs for information and business intelligence, with decisions becoming less structured among higher levels of management. Operational and middle management charged on support for semistructured decisions. Meanwhile for senior management, they are in charged of balanced scorecard and enterprise performance management methods. The results from business intelligence and analytics are delivered to managers and employees in a variety of ways, depending on what they know to perform their jobs. MIS,DSS an ESS which deliver information and knowledge to different people and level in a firms. Management information systems (MIS) producing routine production reports are typically used to support this type of decision making. For making unstructured decisions, middle managers and analysts will use decision-support systems (DSS) with powerful analytics and modeling tools, including spreadsheets and pivot tables. Senior executives making unstructured decisions use dashboards and visual interfaces displaying key performance information affecting the overall profitability, success, and strategy of the firm. The balanced scorecard and business performance management are two methodologies used in designing executive support systems (ESS). The leading methodology for understanding the really important information needed by a firm’s executive.

  2. Group decision-support systems (GDSS) help people working together in a group arrive at decisions more efficiently. GDSS feature special conference room facilities where participants contribute their ideas using networked computers and software tools for organizing ideas, gathering information, making and setting priorities, and documenting meeting sessions. How it provides value for a business ? provide tools and technologies geared explicitly toward group decision making.

result of discuss about progress of dolibarr :
we have make a company name and our warehouse that is tofuliciouSMD