Groups 1
-Melati Puspa A (140160399)
-Faza Pradipta (1401160517)
-Moses Eka Nugraha (1401160167)
-Zevy Rizky (1401160510)

First Assignment

NO 1
Unstructured decisions are those in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insight to solve the problem. Each of these decisions is novel, important, and non routine, and there is no well-understood or agreed-on procedure for making them. Structured decisions, by contrast, are repetitive and routine, and they involve a definite procedure for handling them so that they do not have to be treated each time as if they were new. Many decisions have elements of both
types of decisions and are semistructured, where only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure. In general, structured decisions are more prevalent at lower organizational levels, whereas unstructured problems are more common at higher levels of the firm. Intelligence consists of discovering, identifying, and understanding the problems occurring in the organization—why a problem exists, where, and what effects it is having on the firm. Design involves identifying and exploring various solutions to the problem. Choice consists of choosing among solution alternatives. Implementation involves making the chosen alternative work and continuing to monitor how well the solution is working.

NO 2
Manager play key roles in organizations. Their responsibilities range from making decisions, to writing reports, to attending meetings, to arranging birthday parties. We are able to better understand managerial functions and roles by examining classical and contemporary models of managerial behavior.
The classical model of management, which describes what managers do, was largely unquestioned for the more than 70 years since the 1920s. Henri Fayol and other early writers first described the five classical functions of managers as planning, organizing, coordinating, deciding, and controlling. This description of management activities dominated management thought for a long time, and it is still popular today.
The classical model describes formal managerial functions but does not address exactly what managers do when they plan, decide things, and control the work of others. For this, we must turn to the work of contemporary behavioral scientists who have studied managers in daily action. Behavioral models state that the actual behavior of managers appears to be less systematic, more informal, less reflective, more reactive, and less well organized than the classical model would have us believe.
Observers find that managerial behavior actually has five attributes that differ greatly from the classical description. First, managers perform a great deal of work at an unrelenting pace—studies have found that managers engage in more than 600 different activities each day, with no break in their pace. Second, managerial activities are fragmented; most activities last for less than nine minutes, and only 10 percent of the activities exceed one hour in duration. Third, managers prefer current, specific, and ad hoc information (printed information often will be too old). Fourth, they prefer oral forms of communication to written forms because oral media provide greater flexibil- ity, require less effort, and bring a faster response. Fifth, managers give high priority to maintaining a diverse and complex web of contacts that act as an informal information system and helps them execute their personal agendas and short- and long-term goals.

NO 3
-Business intelligence (BI)” is a term used by hardware and software vendors and information technology consultants to describe the infrastructure for warehousing, integrating, reporting, and analyzing data that comes from the business environment, including big data. The foundation infrastructure collects, stores, cleans, and makes relevant information available to managers. Think databases, data warehouses, data marts, Hadoop, and analytic platforms, which we described in Chapter 6. “Business analytics (BA)” is also a vendor- defined term that focuses more on tools and techniques for analyzing and understanding data. Think online analytical processing (OLAP), statistics, models, and data mining . So, stripped to its essentials, business intelligence and analytics are about integrating all the information streams produced by a firm into a single, coher- ent enterprise-wide set of data, and then, using modeling, statistical analy- sis tools (like normal distributions, correlation and regression analysis, Chi square analysis, forecasting, and cluster analysis), and data mining tools (pat- tern discovery and machine learning), to make sense out of all these data so managers can make better decisions and better plans, or at least know quickly when their firms are failingm to meet planned targets.

-There are six elements in this business intelligence environment:
Data from the business environment: Businesses must deal with both structured and unstructured data from many different sources, including big data. The data need to be integrated and organized so that they can be analyzed and used by human decision makers. Business intelligence infrastructure: The underlying foundation of business intelligence is a powerful database system that captures all the relevant data to operate the business. The data may be stored in transactional databases or combined and integrated into an enterprise-data warehouse or series of interrelated data marts.
Managerial users and methods: Business intelligence hardware and software are only as intelligent as the human beings who use them. Managers impose order on the analysis of data using a variety of managerial methods that define strategic business goals and specify how progress will be measured. These include business performance management and balanced scorecard approaches focusing on key performance indicators and industry strategic analyses focusing on changes in the general business environment, with special attention to competitors. Without strong senior management oversight, business analytics can produce a great deal of information, reports, and online screens that focus on the wrong matters and divert attention
from the real issues. You need to remember that, so far, only humans can ask intelligent questions.
Delivery platform—MIS, DSS, ESS: The results from business intelligence and analytics are delivered to managers and employees in a variety of ways, depending on what they need to know to perform their jobs. MIS, DSS, and ESS, which we introduced in Chapter 2, deliver information and knowledge to different people and levels in the firm—operational employees, middle managers, and senior executives. In the past, these systems could not share data and operated as independent systems. Today, one suite of hardware and software tools in the form of a business intelligence and analytics package is able to integrate all this information and bring it to managers’ desktop or mobile platforms.
User interface: Business people are no longer tied to their desks and desktops. They often learn quicker from a visual representation of data than from a dry report with columns and rows of information. Today’s business analytics software suites emphasize visual techniques such as dashboards and scorecards. They also are able to deliver reports on BlackBerrys, iPhones, and other mobile handhelds as well as on the firm’s Web portal. BA software is adding capabilities to post information on Twitter, Facebook, or internal social media to support decision making in an online group setting rather than in a face-to-face meeting. Business intelligence and analytics promise to deliver correct, nearly real-time information to decision makers, and the analytic tools help them quickly understand the information and take action.

-There are six analytic functionalities that BI systems deliver to achieve these ends:
Production reports: These are predefined reports based on industry- specific requirements (see Table 12.5).
Parameterized reports: Users enter several parameters as in a pivot table
to filter data and isolate impacts of parameters. For instance, you might want to enter region and time of day to understand how sales of a product vary
by region and time. If you were Starbucks, you might find that customers in the East buy most of their coffee in the morning, whereas in the Northwest customers buy coffee throughout the day. This finding might lead to different marketing and ad campaigns in each region. (See the discussion of pivot tables in Section 12.3.)
Dashboards/scorecards: These are visual tools for presenting performance data defined by users.
Ad hoc query/search/report creation: These allow users to create their own reports based on queries and searches. Drill down: This is the ability to move from a high-level summary to a more
detailed view.
• Forecasts, scenarios, models: These include the ability to perform linear forecasting, what-if scenario analysis, and analyze data using standard statistical tools.

-Two different management strategy for developing Business intelligence hardware and software are only as intelligent as the human beings who use them. Managers impose order on the analysis of data using a variety of managerial methods that define strategic business goals and specify how progress will be measured. These include business performance management and balanced scorecard approaches focusing on key performance indicators and industry strategic analyses focusing on changes in the general business environment, with special attention to competitors. Without strong senior management oversight, business analytics can produce a great deal of information, reports, and online screens that focus on the wrong matters and divert attention

NO 4
-There are many different constituencies that make up a modern business firm. Earlier in this text and in this chapter we identified three levels of management: lower supervisory (operational) management, middle manage- ment, and senior management (vice president and above, including executive or “C level” management, e.g. chief executive officer, chief financial officers, and chief operational officer.) Each of these management groups has different responsibilities and different needs for information and business intelligence, with decisions becoming less structured among higher levels of management

-There are four kinds of systems for supporting the different levels and types of decisions, Management information system (MIS) provides routine reports and summaries of transaction-level data to middle and operational level managers to provide answers to structured and semi-structured decision problems.

· Decision-support system(DSS) provide analytical models or tools for analyzing large quantities of data for middle managers who face semi-structured decision situations.

· Executive support systems(ESS) are systems that provide senior management, making primarily unstructured decisions, with external information(news, stock analyses, and industry trends) and high-level summaries of firm performance.

· In other word, MIS, DSS, and ESS provide information and knowledge to different people and levels in the firm, operational employees, middle managers, and senior executives.

-The balanced score card is a framework for operationalizing a firm’s strategic plan by focusing on measurable outcomes on four dimensions of firm performance: financial, business process, customer, and learning and growth

NO 5
-The DSS we have just described focus primarily on individual decision making. However, so much work is accomplished in groups within firms that a special category of systems called group decision-support systems (GDSS) has been developed to support group and organizational decision making. A GDSS is an interactive computer-based system for facilitating the solution of unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working together as a group in the same location or in different locations.

-A sophisticated GDSS provides each attendee with a dedicated desktop computer under that person’s individual control. No one will be able to see what individuals do on their computers until those participants are ready to share information. Their input is transmitted over a network to a central server that stores information generated by the meeting and makes it available to all on the meeting network. Data can also be projected on a large screen in the meeting room. GDSS make it possible to increase meeting size while at the same time increasing productivity because individuals contribute simultaneously rather than one at a time. A GDSS promotes a collaborative atmosphere by guaranteeing contributors’ anonymity so that attendees focus on evaluating the ideas themselves without fear of personally being criticized or of having their ideas rejected based on the contributor. GDSS software tools follow structured methods for organizing and evaluating ideas and for preserving the results of meetings, enabling non attendees to locate needed information after the meeting. GDSS effectiveness depends on the nature of the problem and the group and on how well a meeting is planned and conducted